A floral formula is a way to represent the structure of a flower using specific letters, numbers and symbols, presenting substantial information about the flower in a compact form. They are world wide in distribution and abundant in tropics and in … Floral formula: Distribution of Asteraceae: The family is commonly known as Sunflower family. Stamens: 5 stamens rarely 4; epipetalous; syngenesious (filament free anther united); formitig a tube which encloses style. Judd, W.S., Campbell, C.S., Kellogg, E.A., Stevens, P.F. Gamopetalous; tubular with 5-5 lobed or ligulate with 3-4 teeth. They are generally easy to distinguish from other plants, mainly because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics. [20] The whitish fluffy head of a dandelion, commonly blown on by children, is made of the pappus, with tiny seeds attached at the ends, whereby the pappus provides a parachute like structure to help the seed be carried away in the wind. Here is the floral formula for the Asteraceae (or Compositae). The aggregation of many small flowers together in compact arrays is an adaptation to facilitate, in effect, an “assembly line” type of pollination. This oil is used as cooking oil. (2.5-5.1 cm) long with narrow, spine-tipped bracts. The pistil consists of two connate carpels. Sessile; ebracteate: aetinomorphic or zygomorphic: pentamerous Regular or irregular; complete or incomplete; unisexual Or hermaphrodite; epigynous; developed; generally represented by ring of 5 small teeth. Ambrosia, Artemisia). Study 49 Floral Formulas and Family Facts Final + Plant of the Day flashcards from Alex S. on StudyBlue. The earlier name, Compositae (now recognized as an alternative name[9]) means "composite" and refers to the characteristic inflorescence, a special type of pseudanthium found in only a few other angiosperm families. Southwestern United States. [29], Many species of this family possess medicinal properties and are used as traditional antiparasitic medicine. The four major floral parts are always shown in the same order; sepals (CA), petals (CO), stamens (A), and carpels (G). [5], Asteraceans are especially common in open and dry environments.[19]. The calyx is represented by pappus. Plants are used as herbs and in herbal teas and other beverages. It Fruits: Achenial one seeded cypselM Auld BA, Meld RW (1992) 'Weeds an illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia.' These can be fleshy or woody depending on the species.[10]. VIII, Flowering Plants, Eudicots, Asterales (J. W. Kadereit and C. Jeffrey, eds.). Examples include various tumbleweeds, Bidens, ragweeds, thistles, and dandelion. Worldwide. [16][17][18] They produce iso/chlorogenic acid, sesquiterpene lactones, pentacyclic triterpene alcohols, various alkaloids, acetylenes (cyclic, aromatic, with vinyl end groups), tannins. It is the largest family of Angiosperms. [1] Barreda, et al. These are mostly herbaceous but can also be brightly coloured (e.g. They are tubular and bisexual. Enlarged outer (peripheral) flowers in the capitula may resemble petals, and the involucral bracts may look like a calyx. The family includes over 32,000 currently accepted species, in over 1,900 genera (list) in 13 subfamilies. It has more than 1000 genera and 93000 species. The latter is the only kind of floret in the Carduoideae, while the first kind is more widespread. Some examples are Chrysanthemum, Gerbera, Calendula, Dendranthema, Argyranthemum, Dahlia, Tagetes, Zinnia, and many others. Chamomile, for example, comes from two different species: the annual Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile) and the perennial Chamaemelum nobile (Roman chamomile). [citation needed], The genera Chrysanthemum, Pulicaria, Tagetes, and Tanacetum contain species with useful insecticidal properties. Affinities 5. Achene” is a fruit of similar texture but derived from a single superior carpel (as … Disc florets are usually actinomorphic, with five petal lips on the rim of the corolla tube. [19], The pollen of composites is typically echinolophate, a morphological term meaning "with elaborate systems of ridges and spines dispersed around and between the apertures. Thanks…It gives to the point information. Most members of Asteraceae are annual or perennial herbs, but a significant number are also shrubs, vines, or trees. [10] The Asteraceae may represent as much as 10% of autochthonous flora in many regions of the world. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Asteraceae&oldid=982133740, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Twelve species of Asteraceae from the subfamilies Asteroideae, Carduoideae and Cichorioideae, This page was last edited on 6 October 2020, at 10:42. A 4+1 scheme is found in the Barnadesioideae. (ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE) Sunflower Family). It is complete classification of a family enough for intermediate level. Some marginal florets may have no petals at all (filiform floret). (5 mm) long. It has more than 1000 genera and 93000 species. US Wildflower's Database of Family Asteraceae Wildflowers for All States Click on thumbnail for larger version of image, scientific name for detail page. The vernacular name daisy, widely applied to members of this family, is derived from the Old English name of the daisy (Bellis perennis): dæġes ēaġe, meaning "day's eye". cons", "International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants – Article 18.5", "Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases", "Toward a phylogenetic subfamilial classification for the Compositae (Asteraceae)", "Resolution of deep nodes yields an improved backbone phylogeny and a new basal lineage to study early evolution of Asteraceae", "A comprehensive generic‐level phylogeny of the sunflower family: Implications for the systematics of Chinese Asteraceae", International Association for Plant Taxonomy, "Morphology of Cypselae in Subtribe Arctotidinae (Compositae–Arctotideae) And Its Taxonomic Implications", "Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India", https://landscapeplants.aub.edu.lb/Plants/GetPDF/dcc77b26-1656-4f5f-bbc3-a32e75aaa030. Pertyoideae: 5 or 6 genera, 70 species. [20] The older family name, Compositae, comes from the fact that what appears to be a single flower is actually a composite of smaller flowers. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Ecological Threat 2. [1], It is still unknown whether the precise cause of their great success was the development of the highly specialised capitulum, their ability to store energy as fructans (mainly inulin), which is an advantage in relatively dry zones, or some combination of these and possibly other factors. Asia, Gymnarrhenoideae: Two genera/species, Gymnarrhena micrantha (Northern Africa, Middle East) and Cavea tanguensis (Eastern Himalayas). Asteraceae, the aster, daisy, or composite family of the flowering-plant order Asterales. Propagation type:Seeds and fruits Distribution: The members of this family are distributed throughout the world. Many members of this family are cultivated as ornamental plants. Nearly all Asteraceae bear their flowers in dense heads (capitula or pseudanthia) surrounded by involucral bracts. [14] Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Asteroideae (or Tubuliflorae) and Cichorioideae (or Liguliflorae). [20] The overall appearance of the cluster, as a single flower, functions in attracting pollinators in the same way as the structure of an individual flower in some other plant families. Some species have underground stems in the form of caudices or rhizomes. Seed: non-endospermic seed. The “floral formula” is a shorthand method of setting forth the details of flower structure. [5], Asteraceae produce secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and terpenoids. DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR OBJECTIVES OF STRUCTURE OF PLANTS PARTS, DEFINITIONS AND KEY POINTS FOR OBJECTIVES OF PLANT DIVERSITY. [26], The oldest known fossils of members of Asteraceae are pollen grains from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica, dated to ∼76–66 Mya (Campanian to Maastrichtian) and assigned to the extant genus Dasyphyllum. Technically, the specialized term cypsela for the peculiar fruit of the Asteraceae, derived from a 2-carpellate, inferior ovary is correct. Mutisioideae: 58 genera, 750 species. Ray florets are always highly zygomorphic and are characterised by the presence of a ligule, a strap-shaped structure on the edge of the corolla tube consisting of fused petals. Structurally, the pseudanthium is synchronized to work as an effective reproductive unit (Weberling, 1989). Anemochory (wind dispersal) is common, assisted by a hairy pappus. Androecium: Stamens 5, epipetalous, filaments separate, anthers usually united to form a tube around the style, dehiscence introse, and superior. Seeds are ordinarily dispersed intact with the fruiting body, the cypsela. Characters of Arecaceae: Mainly trees with stout unbranched stem ending in crown of leaves; leaves large, compound, alternate, young leaves are plicate, exstipulate with long petioles; inflorescence enclosed in a persistent […] Required fields are marked *. Fodders: Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) is one of the best forage crops. & J. Presl, nom. Asteraceae are important in herbal medicine, including Grindelia, yarrow, and many others. Economic Importance of Papilionaceae. [20] The word "aster" means "star" in Greek, referring to the appearance of some family members, as a "star" surrounded by "rays". In some species, however, the pappus falls off (for example in Helianthus). This is because the petals open at dawn and close at dusk. It can represent a taxon , usually giving ranges of the numbers of different organs, or particular species. The four subfamilies Asteroideae, Cichorioideae, Carduoideae and Mutisioideae contain 99% of the species diversity of the whole family (approximately 70%, 14%, 11% and 3% respectively). Sunflower has two types of small flowers. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland. Asteraceae 1-Floral formula. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk (2002)[15] updated in 2014,[16] and now also includes the monotypic Famatinanthoideae. Floral Symmetry: ... Floral formula: * or X, K∞, C 5 , A 5 , G 2 ; achene Profile Diagram of Flower Transverse Diagram of Flower Tubular Flower Ligulate Flower _ -K.\ PAPPUS BRISTLES DISK OR TUBULAR FLOWER RAY OR LIGULATE FLOWER INVOLUCRAL BRACTS (PHYLLARIES) RECEPTACLE These pulses are used as food. Staminate heads have all male flowers. Chilli belongs to family Asteraceae. Sometimes bilabiate; In the Asteroideae and other minor subfamilies these are usually borne only on florets at the circumference of the capitulum and have a 3+2 scheme – above the fused corolla tube, three very long fused petals form the ligule, with the other two petals being inconspicuously small. Important Type. Historically, recognition of the identity of the Asteraceae has been centred on their capitulum with flowers tightly arranged on a receptacle surrounded by bracts (Troll, 1928; Claßen-Bockhoff, 1990, 1992; Funk et al., 2009). [20], A ray flower is a 3-tipped (3-lobed), strap-shaped, individual flower in the head of some members of the family Asteraceae. Pages 61–87 in Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. Asteraceae family is the largest family of Angiosperms. AIPMT 1991: K(5) C(5) A(5) G(2) is floral formula of (A) liliaceae (B) solanaceae (C) asteraceae (D) fabaceae.. (1963) Subfamilial Nomenclature of Compositae. [20] Disciform heads have only disc flowers, but may have two kinds (male flowers and female flowers) in one head, or may have different heads of two kinds (all male, or all female). The leaves and the stems very often contain secretory canals with resin or latex (particularly common among the Cichorioideae). "Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Food: Most of the important pulses are belonged to this family. Gudddy Carpel: Bicarpellary; syncarpous; stigma bind ovary inferior; placentation basal. Asteraceae vegetative feature inflorscn. A set of bracts forms an involucre surrounding the base of the capitulum. [20] Sometimes, the 3:2 arrangement is reversed, with 2 tips on the tongue, and 0 or 3 tiny teeth opposite the tongue. [7] In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae. The alternative name Compositae is still valid under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species ranging from subpolar to tropical regions, colonizing a wide variety of habitats. (2015) estimated that the crown group of Asteraceae evolved at least 85.9 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Santonian) with a stem node age of 88–89 Mya (Late Cretaceous, Coniacian). These bracts are often called "chaff". The margins can be entire or lobed or toothed. Bisexual i.e. These form more than ten per cent of the total number of species of flowering plants. when cut through any vertical plane passing through the axis then two equal halves are formed and its symmetry remains undisturbed. The Asteraceae flower heads can be homogamous or heterogamous. Asteraceae 1-Floral formula. In plants of the family Asteraceae, what appears to be a single flower is actually a cluster of much smaller flowers. Sometimes bilabiate; (filament free anther united); formitig a tube which encloses style. 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[ 14 ] Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Asteroideae ( or Tubuliflorae ) and Cavea (! Dome-Like structure called the receptacle causes of so-called hay fever in the arid and semiarid regions of the the..., usually giving ranges floral formula of asteraceae the Asteraceae generally produce taproots, but are deeply...
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