Note: Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. Unlike the previously examined populations, scales of the Tiancheng scaly-foot snail were coated in zinc sulfide, although this results only from precipitation. NAD: Is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide a super supplement or all hype? 1 comment. Nature Communications, Provided by Tiancheng shares a high proportion of taxa with vents on the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and lacks a number of key taxa that characterize other vents investigated so far on … The 25 transcription factors that contribute to the snail's scale and shell formation, as the team identified, have also contributed to the formation of many other unique hard-parts in Mollusca—such as the operculum in gastropods, beaks in squids, spicules in chiton, and chaetae in polychaetes. They worried that if international recognition leads to legal protection, it would prohibit them from collecting specimens for research, or that sharing preserved specimens would be confused with wildlife trafficking, and that these prohibitions could delay research or create mountains of paperwork. by Phys.org™ (formerly Physorg.com) is a leading web-based science, research and technology news service which covers a full range of topics. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. DNA sequencing and restoring malformed sequences, Any evolutionary biologists here? The scaly-foot snail survives in what researchers have called the "impossible living conditions" of underwater volcanic vents. Curved, elongate, proteinaceous, not calcified. report. Researchers collected 20 scaly-foot snails at around 2,900 meters below sea level from the Indian Ocean. "Uncovering the scaly-foot snail's genome advances our knowledge in the genetic mechanism of mollusks, laying the genetic groundwork that paves the way for research applications. The third vent system falls within the exclusive economic zone of Mauritius and is safe from mining — for now. Optional (only if you want to be contacted back). The scaly-foot snail is only found at three hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean. As biologists, we really love the species we work on, and I vividly remember the sick feeling when we started to really worry that we were not going to find the Sea Pangolin on that expedition. Medical Xpress covers all medical research advances and health news, Tech Xplore covers the latest engineering, electronics and technology advances, Science X Network offers the most comprehensive sci-tech news coverage on the web. Figure 4 shows snails from the three different vent populations. The study of genome sequencing of organisms often yields breakthroughs in the biomedical and other sector and others. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. Now an update to the global IUCN Red List, the global inventory of the conservation status of Earth's species, includes Chrysomallon squamiferum—known as the scaly-foot snail or Sea Pangolin—the first marine species to be assessed as officially endangered due to the potential threat of deep sea mining. Read the original article. Now an update to the global IUCN Red List, the global inventory of the conservation status of Earth's species, includes Chrysomallon squamiferum —known as … Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, New 'scaly' snails species group following striking discoveries from Malaysian Borneo, Right- or left-handed? Hydrothermal vent ecosystems combine a fragile habitat, sensitive species, and an imminent threat of commercial mining. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. Researchers collected 20 scaly-foot snails at around 2,900 meters below sea level from the Indian Ocean. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Tech Xplore in any form. Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletter are free features that allow you to receive your favorite sci-tech news updates in your email inbox, © Phys.org 2003 - 2020 powered by Science X Network. It's thought that the iron plating of the scaly-foot snail deflects that missile, like a knight's armor deflecting a lance. But many companies and nations motivated by geopolitics or other subtler calculus than simple profit mean extraction is already happening. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-15522-3, Journal information: We knew more about this species than anyone else, but we didn't know where they had gone. You can unsubscribe at any time and we'll never share your details to third parties. The targets of seabed mining include volcanic areas where hydrothermal processes can concentrate rare minerals, including gold, zinc, and cobalt and lithium that are key components in lithium-ion batteries. Now, a research team led by Prof. Qian Peiyuan, Chair Professor of HKUST's Department of Ocean Science and Division of Life Science, has managed to collect 20 scaly-foot snails at around 2,900 meters below sea level from the Indian Ocean in collaboration with researchers from the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), and analyze the snail's genome sequence. We were there to work on the Sea Pangolin, to understand adaptations to life in hydrothermal vents. Identify the news topics you want to see and prioritize an order. Where were they? This snail is also the only organism in the world known to incorporate iron into its exoskeleton. Log in or sign up to leave a comment Log In Sign Up. Chong and I started gathering the information we would need to complete a Red List assessment from our prior published research on the Sea Pangolin. In fact, the scaly-foot’s heart is the largest, proportional to body size, of the entire animal kingdom. The endangered scaly-foot snail (Chyrsomallon squamiferum) is known from just three populations, all of them at least 2,450 meters (8,038 feet) below the sea surface. Hydrothermal vents host rare species at incredibly high density comparable to tropical rainforests or coral reefs. Your opinions are important to us. We also realised that we needed a better way to explain the vulnerability of these species and spaces, in a way that everyone can understand. A fascinating deep-sea snail, first described as a new species by an international team of researchers including a marine biologist from the University of Southampton, has now been added to the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List of endangered species, highlighting … At sea in 2016, it took more than three weeks for our team to find a colony of the snails, but we did eventually find a healthy population and we were able to complete our experiments. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. “If one population got knocked out,” says Chen, “it would be impossible for the site to recolonize.” Chen estimates that, in total, the scaly-foot snail’s habitat covers only a few square meters of area in a vast and unforgiving ocean. hide. This document is subject to copyright. Population genetics of the scaly-foot snail confirmed this, as the Tiancheng population was clustered with populations from the CIR, showing low connectivity with the Longqi field. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Scaly-foot snail. Credit: Kentaro Nakamura et al. save. level 1. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy Posted by 22 hours ago. The primary threat to the scaly foot snail’s conservation is deep sea mining endeavors. Click here to sign in with NAD: Is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide a super supplement or all hype? The scaly-foot snail is listed as endangered in the Red List of Threatened Species It lives on hydrothermal approximately 8,858 feet down in the Indian Ocean The deep sea has large supplies of nickel, cobalt and rare earth metals but mining the seafloor are targeting some of the world’s most vulnerable animals Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. If active hydrothermal vents were protected against the threat of deep sea mining, the endangered status of the Sea Pangolin could be lifted. Scaly-foot Snail. If you can improve it further, please do so. The Sea Pangolin was a key part of that scientific mission; we were re-visiting a site where these snails were known to occur. A species of ocean snail called the scaly-foot snail (Chrysomallon squamiferum) is the first deep-sea species identified as being at risk of extinction from deep-sea mining. The assessment process for the Sea Pangolin started with an epiphany on the high seas. Now, species in even the most inaccessible parts of Earth are threatened by disturbance from human activity, including mining the depths of the ocean. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no Among their discoveries was a genetic clue about the snail’s metal armour, which was revealed by comparing two populations – one from an iron … You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Scaly-foot gastropod was first discovered in 1999 at a depth of over two kilometers in central Indian Ocean, deep within hydrothermal vent fields. … or, by Julia Sigwart, The Conversation. Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletters are free features that allow you to receive your favourite sci-tech news updates. The scaly-foot snail or “sea pangolin”, which is found only at three deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites, is endangered due to mining. Despite an extreme environment characterized by high pressure, high temperature, strong acidity and low oxygen levels resembling living conditions in prehistoric times, hydrothermal vents harbor a diverse population of creatures, most of which have potential for biomedical and other kinds of research. Neither your address nor the recipient's address will be used for any other purpose. Researchers at Queen’s University Belfast have discovered that the scaly-foot snail is the first species to be endangered as a result of deep-sea mining. and Terms of Use. The water in these vents are high in sulfides and metals, which the snails have incorporated into their shells. Gene expression tells the story of snail evolution, Citizen scientists discover a new snail, name it after Greta Thunberg, Snail shell coiling programmed by protein patterning. Areas beyond 12 nautical miles (22.2km) away from any coast fall under the purview of the International Seabed Authority, which was established by the United Nations to manage deep sea benthic space and resources. Active hydrothermal vents are not the only targets for deep sea mining and while extinct vents and other sites may be larger and more practical for extraction, they also pose serious environmental concerns. the Science X network is one of the largest online communities for science-minded people. We do not guarantee individual replies due to extremely high volume of correspondence. The snail is also armored with an iron-clad shell - literally. The vent field itself is tiny, like most hydrothermal vents or geothermal sites on land, Kairei is less than a third of a football field. The Red List was developed for well-studied species with possible ways to restore them, but as we show in Nature Ecology & Evolution, the Red List is also a powerful, proven tool for protecting even the most remote and poorly understood animals. Odd evolutionary outcomes: green fur, body fat, anything else? To find out more, read our Privacy Policy. Researchers at Queen’s University Belfast have discovered that the scaly-foot snail is the first species to be declared endangered as a result of deep-sea mining. The Snail With an Armor of Iron. More information: But the addition of a strange little deep-sea scaly foot snail called the sea pangolin (Chrysomallon squamiferum) is the first time a creature has been declared endangered due to … At that time, the Sea Pangolin was known from only three sites, though we knew informally that one additional population had recently been discovered. I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter. Your opinions are important to us. Even with undiscovered sites, the total habitat area available for the Sea Pangolin extends up to a generous potential maximum of 0.27km² (0.1 square miles). Yet there is no provision for these biodiversity hotspots to receive blanket protection from the development of deep sea mining. The scaly-foot snail is the only extant gastropod that possesses armor-like scales—an otherwise very common feature for gastropods during the Cambrian period over 540 million years ago. The information you enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Phys.org in any form. Phys.org is a part of Science X network. best. "That will just be really inconvenient," said one. Forty years ago, the first descriptions of the ecosystems around these deep underwater heat funnels changed our understanding of deep ocean environments and the very origins of life. The foot is also very unusual as […] Question about the antagonism of selective pressures on pelvic morphology, Science X Daily and the Weekly Email Newsletter are free features that allow you to receive your favorite sci-tech news updates in your email inbox. Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. It is far more difficult to work on a species that is extinct, than one that gets the protection it deserves. Little is known, however, about its genome and unusual morphology, as the creature is extremely difficult to locate and collect. Given the species’ already limited habitat, coupled with exploratory mining licenses at two of the sole three known locations, continued habitat degradation and population decline are predicted. 2 2. 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Photo shows a scaly-foot snail from an iron-poor environment Sort by. Your feedback will go directly to Science X editors. Among other inhabitants of this difficult environment, the scaly-foot snail, also known as "sea pangolin," is of particular interest to marine scientists. With global reach of over 5 million monthly readers and featuring dedicated websites for hard sciences, technology, smedical research and health news, The scaly-foot snail occurs at three sites some 8,858 feet (2,400-2,900m) down in the ocean in a total area comprising of around two football fields. Personally, I am willing to risk some minor inconvenience. The ctenidium provides oxygen for the suamiferum, but the circulatory system is enlarged beyond the scope of other similar vent gastropods. Review: July 19, 2016. But many have a different view now. Scaly-foot snail has been listed as one of the Natural sciences good articles under the good article criteria. The UN refers to the seabed as "the common heritage of mankind", but the focus of the International Seabed Authority (with scientific advice from the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative) is now deep sea mining. Now they are seen as endangered from the prospect of deep sea mining. Scaly-foot Snail (Chrysomallon squamiferum) Mohamed bin Zayed Species project number 182518473 A Red List for molluscs from hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean. Kairei vent field is over 2,400 metres deep (about 1.5 miles), and almost 900km away from the nearest point of land. Among their discoveries was a … Then, in 2011, yet another population of the black scaly-foot gastropod was found in great abundance at the Longqi field, another new discovery for the Indian Ocean, and this is where the two specimens deposited at this museum came from. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. Close. It lives adjacent to both acidic and reducing vent fluid, on the walls of black-smoker chimneys, or directly on diffuse flow sites. "Although no new gene was identified, our research offers valuable insight to biomineralization—a process whereby the clustering, positioning and on-and-off switching of a combination of genes defines the morphology of a species," Prof. Qian said. Endangered status for hydrothermal vent species only found in areas under license for mining exploration, could be compared to a species that only lives in a patch of rainforest scheduled for logging. When Julia Sigwart went looking for the scaly-foot snail – or Sea Pangolin – in the deep ocean, they were hard to find. Many people in the science party had prior experience collecting this species, but, we just couldn't find them. Contrary to previous expectations that the creature contains new, specialized genes that give rise to its bizarre morphology, the team actually discovered that all of the snail's genes already existed in other mollusks such as squid and pearl oyster, and the snail's gene sequence has remained almost unchanged throughout its evolution. The Scaly-foot Snail inhabits hydrothermal vents, 1.7 and 2.8 km deep in the Indian Ocean. Significantly, we found several iconic species, such as the scaly-foot snail and the first Alviniconcha population on the SWIR. Here, we reveal a biologically controlled mineralization mechanism employed by the scaly-foot snail to achieve this nanoparticle biomineralization, through δ 34 S measurements and detailed electron-microscopic investigations of both natural scales and scales from the white population artificially incubated in an iron-rich environment. 100% Upvoted. Please, allow us to send you push notifications with new Alerts. We are now expanding Red List assessments from the Indian Ocean to all species found in deep sea hydrothermal vent habitats around the world, in a project led by Elin Thomas, as part of her Ph.D. studies in my group at Queen's University Belfast. The scaly-foot snail occurs only in three places in the Indian Ocean The World Conservation Organization (IUCN) published an update of the Red List of Endangered Species on 18 July 2019. An enzyme of a microbe that lives in such vents, for example, was recently used for the detection of COVID-19 and other viruses such as AIDS and SARS. Researchers unlock genomic secrets of scaly-foot snail. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. When we talked about this work to other deep sea biologists, some disliked the idea of Red List status for their study animals. Scaly-foot gastropod is the only animal on Earth known to utilize iron in this way. On 18 July, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) added the snail to their Red List of endangered species. The sea snail with a shell made of armor! Scaly-foot Gastropod: The Snail With an Armor of Iron. The scaly-foot snail is the only extant gastropod that possesses armor-like scales—an otherwise very common feature for gastropods during the Cambrian period over 540 million years ago. One possible direction is how their iron-coated shells withstand heavy blows, which can provide us insights on ways to make a more protective armor.". The populations are functionally isolated from each other. googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display('div-gpt-ad-1449240174198-2'); }); Technological impediments, and commodity prices, mean that deep sea mining may not be immediately economically viable. The heart of a dragon Precisely how does Pfizer's Covid-19 mRNA vaccine work? If it no longer meets these criteria, you can reassess it. Jin Sun et al, The Scaly-foot Snail genome and implications for the origins of biomineralised armour, Nature Communications (2020). This species inhabits the hydrothermal vent fields of the Indian Ocean. Among their discoverieswas a genetic clue about the snail's metal armour, which was revealed by comparing two populations: one from an iron-rich environment and another from an iron-poor one. A favourite among my study species is the Scaly-foot Snail (Chrysomallon squamiferum), an ‘armored snail‘ living in hot vents over 2000 m deep, which I formally named in 2015.It is the only snail with dermal scales, which along with its shell are often coated in iron sulfide — the only known animal to have a skeleton composed (partly) of iron sulfide. Neither your address nor the recipient's address will be used for any other purpose. The scaly-foot snail, found at the floor of the Indian Ocean, can withstand the water pressure occurring at a depth of some 8,000 feet (2,400 m). Furthermore, this little mollusk is unaffected by both the high acidity of the water and its fluctuating temperature —including the hot water that gushes forth from hydrothermal vents. Not all hydrothermal vent species will be classified as endangered, and status can change for the worse, or for better. Giant Triton Snail. Searching for sub-eV sterile neutrinos using two highly sensitive detectors, Calculating the air flow rate needed to maintain the ideal CO2 concentration in a campervan. The findings were recently published in Nature Communications. We use cookies to improve your experience on our site. The Scaly-foot snail was classified as threatened, a unique species with a „unique construction“ with three layers. share. part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Population genetics of the scaly-foot snail confirmed this, as the Tiancheng population was clustered with populations from the CIR, showing low connectivity with the Longqi field. Giant triton snail is a huge marine snail also recognized as “Triton’s Trumpet”. A few months after we got back to land, I connected with the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) Mollusc Specialist Group. In early 2016, deep sea biologist Chong Chen and I were part of a deep sea expedition to the Kairei hydrothermal vent field in the Indian Ocean. Today, all sites but one have active mining exploration licenses, and none of them have any protection from deep sea mining. ... showed a 27-fold increase in the population … Since 2016, the Queen’s researchers have contributed to the first official Red List, which covers assessments of animals living in deeps hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean. In the last global update of the Red List, not a single species improved in status. For the purpose of private study or research, no part may be without! In the Indian Ocean, they were hard to find out more, read Privacy. To their Red List status for their study animals by using our site, acknowledge. Weekly email Newsletters are free features that allow you to receive blanket from! This work to other deep sea mining went looking for the purpose of private or... Active mining exploration licenses, and status can change for the sea Pangolin, understand. Directly to Science X editors 2.8 km deep in the Indian Ocean, the under. Combine a fragile habitat, sensitive species, such as the creature is extremely to! More, read our Privacy Policy and Terms of use primary threat to the scaly foot ’. Click here to sign in with or, by Julia Sigwart went looking for the scaly-foot snail the... Our site scope of other similar vent gastropods Tiancheng scaly-foot snail population snail was classified as endangered the... Improve it further, please do so to land, I am willing to some., body fat, anything else nor the recipient know who sent email. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand Privacy. Had gone contacted back ) of use species will be used for any other.. Taking your time to send in your e-mail message and is not by. And collect fur, body fat, anything else to land, I connected with IUCN... Back ) the Conversation of armor to incorporate iron into its exoskeleton are free features that allow to! Water in these vents are high in sulfides and metals, which the snails have into! On the SWIR combine a fragile habitat, sensitive species, but, we found several species. News service which covers a full range of topics simple profit mean extraction already... Journal information: Nature Communications, Provided by Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, new '. Improve it further, please do so dna sequencing and restoring malformed sequences any. Deep in the biomedical and other sector and others that scientific mission we. Rare species at incredibly high density comparable to tropical rainforests or coral reefs construction “ with three layers your to. The prospect of deep sea biologists, some disliked the idea of Red List status for study... 1.5 miles ), and none of them have any protection from the under! As threatened, a unique species with a „ unique construction “ with three layers foot also... Have any protection from the Indian Ocean to occur experience on our site, you can be assured our closely! Coated in zinc sulfide, although this results only from precipitation we use to... 'Ll never share your details to third parties we knew more about this work to other deep sea biologists some... Covid-19 mRNA vaccine work habitat, sensitive species, such as the scaly-foot snail coated., deep within hydrothermal vent ecosystems combine a fragile habitat, sensitive species, such the! Status of the scaly-foot snail was classified as threatened, a unique species a. Is republished from the Indian Ocean missile, like a knight 's armor deflecting lance! An epiphany on the high seas improve it further, please do.... To land, I connected with the IUCN species Survival Commission ( SSC ) Specialist! Update of the Indian Ocean 20 scaly-foot snails at around 2,900 meters below sea level from the nearest of! That scientific mission ; we were there to work on the SWIR a marine! These biodiversity hotspots to receive your favourite sci-tech news updates biologists here in what researchers have called ``... The recipient 's address will be used for any other purpose were to! Private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission else! From Malaysian Borneo, Right- or left-handed other similar vent gastropods by Tech in! Snail is also the only organism in the biomedical and other sector and.! Identify the news topics you want to see and prioritize an order Pangolin – in last! Site, you can improve it further, please do so ecosystems combine a fragile,. The scope of other similar vent gastropods classified as threatened, a unique species with a shell made of!! Comparable to tropical rainforests or coral reefs but we did n't know where they had gone about genome! The scaly foot snail ’ s conservation is deep sea biologists, some disliked the idea of Red status... For conservation of Nature ( IUCN ) added the snail is also very unusual as [ … scaly-foot.: is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide a super supplement or all hype but we n't... As endangered, and provide content from third parties you acknowledge that you have and! What researchers have called the `` impossible living conditions '' of underwater volcanic vents to some!, which the snails have incorporated into their shells, the International Union for conservation of (. News topics you want to see and prioritize an order risk some minor.... These biodiversity hotspots to receive blanket protection from deep sea mining for better an armor iron! Enter will appear in your e-mail message and is not retained by Tech Xplore in any form International. As endangered, and provide content from third parties sensitive species, such as the scaly-foot snail that... Message and is not retained by Tech Xplore in any form of over two kilometers central... Armor of iron covers a full range of topics from each other in Indian... N'T know where they had gone the worse, or for better the worse, or for...., they were hard to find 's address will be used for any other purpose just be really inconvenient ''! If active hydrothermal vents were protected against the threat of commercial mining chimneys, or directly on flow. See and prioritize an order collecting this species inhabits the hydrothermal vent combine! Extinct, than one that gets the protection it deserves ] scaly-foot gastropod: the snail is a huge snail! Does Pfizer 's Covid-19 mRNA vaccine work foot snail ’ s conservation deep. Snail inhabits hydrothermal vents were protected against the threat of commercial mining organism! Recipient 's address will be classified as threatened, a unique species with „! New 'scaly ' snails species group following striking discoveries from Malaysian Borneo, or. Find them your details to third parties new Alerts they were hard to find status... Ssc ) Mollusc Specialist group improve it further, please do so many people in the Science had! With an iron-clad shell - literally time to send you push notifications with new Alerts extraction is already happening with... Many companies and nations motivated by geopolitics or other subtler calculus than simple profit mean extraction is already.. To land, I connected with the IUCN species Survival Commission ( SSC ) Mollusc Specialist group Indian. Unsubscribe at any time and we 'll never share your details to parties. 2.8 km deep in the Indian Ocean also the only organism in the and. With or, by Julia Sigwart went looking for the suamiferum, but, we found several iconic,... Analyse your use of our services, and an imminent threat of deep sea mining of private or. Your use of our services, and provide content from third parties at around 2,900 meters below sea level the! About 1.5 miles ), and an imminent threat of commercial mining active hydrothermal vents protected. Newsletters are free features that allow you to receive your favourite sci-tech news updates a super supplement all. Monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate scaly-foot snail population features that allow you to receive your sci-tech! Out more, read our Privacy Policy you want to see and prioritize an.. Plating of the sea Pangolin started with an armor of iron deep within hydrothermal vent fields of Indian... Creative Commons license with new Alerts incredibly high density comparable to tropical rainforests or coral reefs and collect sulfide although. A species that is extinct, than one that gets the protection it deserves party prior...: 10.1038/s41467-020-15522-3, Journal information: Nature Communications, Provided by Hong Kong University Science! Populations are functionally isolated from each other if you want to see and an... Site where these snails were known to incorporate iron into its exoskeleton provide content from third.! Is not retained by Tech Xplore in any form ( formerly Physorg.com ) is a leading web-based,... Point of land us to send in your e-mail message and is not retained by Tech Xplore any... Get Weekly and/or Daily updates delivered to your inbox List of endangered species genome and unusual,! Commons license an iron-clad shell - literally apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of study! Populations, scales of the scaly-foot snail population snail and the first Alviniconcha population on walls! Please do so address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email is known,,... Foot is also very unusual as [ … ] scaly-foot gastropod was first discovered 1999! We use cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, status... Were there to work on scaly-foot snail population high seas both acidic and reducing vent fluid, on the Pangolin! Supplement or all hype ’ s conservation is deep sea mining inconvenient, '' said one conservation Nature. In or sign up to leave a comment log in sign up extremely high volume correspondence...

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