About the relationship of various facts of the earth, Ritter opined: “we must ask the earth itself for its laws”. Disclaimer 8. In spite of the fact that he lived long, he was not able to finish his work of Europe. 5. Ritter, a teleologist, was the first who made a major effort in modern times to divide the earth surface on universal consideration. In fact, geography remained an umbrella concept for a variety of expeditions and other activities within the natural and social sciences, to a large extent supported by geographical societies. He exerted great influence beyond the range of his immediate students as he was a geographer in the true sense of the term, whereas Humboldt’s influence was on the non- geographers. Content Guidelines 2. He greatly increased his competence as an observer that helped him to develop his own methods. He wrote of his Erdkunde, “is to proceed from observation to observation, not from hypothesis to observation. Ritter’s regional geography was centred on humankind; the aim was to study the Earth’s surface from an anthropocentric standpoint; to seek to relate humankind and nature and to see the relationship between humankind and his history and the ground on which he lived. e concept of the region pr esented by the Israeli geographer Dov Nir (1990) is based on system s theory. And Baby Makes 300? Ritter’s teleological standpoint with regard to the major regions of the world was subject to criticism as his contemporaries felt that religion could not provide explanations of natural phenomena, especially in the arrangement of the major regions (i.e. His scientific geography was based on the concept of terrestrial or spatial unity (Raumbegriff). 2019 ‘American imperial expansion and area studies without geography’ Journal of Historical Geography 66, 43-54 BARNES, T. J. Regional geography is the branch of Geography that deals with the division and study of the Earth into different regions. He was influenced by W.F. 2. Undoubtedly, Ritter gave to geography its systematic frame which remained valid for the successive periods of modern geography. Copyright 10. Africa had relatively short and the most regular of all coastlines and its interior had least contact with the sea, whereas Asia was better provided with sea inlets, but the interior had little marine contact and Europe was the most varied of all, with an ease of approach along its shore-line of comparatively great length. To him geography had a right to be considered a sharply defined science of kindred dignity with the others. Boundary lines, whether wet or dry (such as rivers or mountains), were instruments for understanding the real purpose of geography which is understanding the content of areas. His stressed that “the outer shell of the earth is the area of geographical study and not the entire earth”. The Imperial Russian Geographical Society in St. Petersburg—1845, 8. Image Guidelines 4. But, in the west, there was variety of environment and history, and in the diverse south (Europe) too history was rich, studded with the efforts and achievements of Egyptians, Carthageans, Greeks, Romans, Gauls and Iberians. In this respect he had more in common with Goethe than with Ritter. As in the Idealism of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, the concept of ‘wholes’ was linked with a Teleological View. Ritter’s significance as a scientist lies in his thorough and critical study of sources and his ability to systematise extensive material. He is considered as ‘Father of Regional Geography’, he stressed on the division of the world into natural and not into political boundaries. Each continent was subdivided by its orography into highland core, surrounded by terrace lands, drained by major rivers and peripheral coastal low lands. His approach in the Erdkunde, Ritter said, had entirely changed, and he claimed that its distinctive theme was a comparative one which aimed at showing the connection between history and nature, both organic and inorganic. Thus, he combined a basic teleological standpoint with a most critical scientific precision, and remarked that ‘my system builds on facts, not on philosophical arguments’. Political geography was a marginal subdiscipline for several decades after World War II, with geopolitical thinking disparaged because of its association with the work of geographers in 1930s Nazi Germany. One of the world’s oldest national parks, Mount Rainier became part of the federal system in 1899, shortly after its last eruption. Charles Darwin described him as "the greatest scientific traveler who ever lived." His ideas were strengthened by the publication of Darwin’s Origin of Species in 1859 with its emphasis on the close relationships of organism and their habitat (environment). He was a teleologist and believed in deductive approach. Geography is a basic subject for all human beings to learn. Ritter was the first great opponent of what may properly be called “armchair geography”. The great function of geography, according to him, is to show the unison of human social phenomena with the complex of natural forces in the locality. It is an essential academic field for all walks of life. The Polar Regions represent mid-night, where land and people are locked in eternal sleep. The first two volumes of the Erdkunde were intended to be followed by a study of history. Disclaimer 9. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the contribution of Carl Ritter to the development of modern geography. He divided the natural features of earth as mountains, rivers etc. (2) The second included the distribution and movements of water, sea and atmosphere: the bases of human life. archives to see if you are a world class geography genius. It was at the University of Gottingen that Ritter published the first volume of the Erdkunde in 1817. Ritter’s concept of the unity of nature simply reflected his teleological standpoint and he saw the unity as an evidence of God’s divine plan. The Islamic Golden Age witnessed astounding advancements in the geographical sciences. In addition to this, the discipline also studies the way in which the groups of people that inhabit the Earth organize themselves in the particular regions that they inhabit. 2,000 Years of the Necktie The history of America's favorite Father's Day gift. Ritter sought for relations or connections, between sets or phenomena in the same area and between one place and another. Ritter’s regional geography was centred on humankind; the aim was to study the Earth’s surface from an anthropocentric standpoint; to seek to relate humankind and nature and to see the relationship between humankind and his history and the ground on which he lived. He opined that if he could bring together all the facts and relationships observed in areas, these would make it possible to state such laws. This is a regional approach. For example, if we take Ganga plain, Chhota Nagpur Platiau. He appeared to have given up many of his positions which he had held, such as his engagement with the Prussian Military School and his association with the scientific commission on geography and history. The famous geographer, Paul Vidal de la Blanche is regarded as the father of Regional Geography. To him, the concept of spatial unity presumed a causal interrelation of all the individual features in nature. The phenomena of nature had to be studied in order to establish the coherence and unity. 2. Strabo (64 BC – 20 AD) Strabo was born in Amesia (Turkey) about 50 miles to the south of Black Sea coast in about 64 BC. Plagiarism Prevention 4. regional geography under stand the region as a social con- struct. Hegel (1770-1831). Students were taught to observe the relationships of things in their immediate vicinity. Ritter was highly impressed by his versatility in observing natural and human phenomena in different parts of the world. From the richly varied landscapes of the region of hills and low mountains, to which Ritter was exposed by his teacher, he derived the idea of unity of nature which became a basic theme of his geographical scholarship. Ritter introduced many stimulating ideas. World Regional Geography. It was in 1807 that Ritter met Humboldt for the first time. Carl Ritter received his early training in a school in Schnepfenthal near Gotha, where the teaching was based on the principles of Rousseau and Pestalozzi. Ritter emphasised that the unity of nature could be recognised in theory and in practice and this could be established scientifically only by investigating the individual, single features in their relation to each other and building these up in their actual relationships to form the whole. The areas of the Earth surface are to be studied in terms of the particular character resulting from the phenomena, interrelated to each other and to the Earth, which fill the areas. His father was a physician and when he died […] The function of the scientific geographer was to perceive these features, not separately, but in their interrelation so that he could thereby reproduce intellectually the unified whole that was Nature. Content Filtrations 6. The geographer traces ‘causation’ and ‘interdependence’ of the spatially distributed phenomena, and the relations of everyone to the country which supplies its condition of being. Asia, said Ritter, represents the sunrise where the early civilisation of man flourished. This purpose must be found most particularly in humankind (highest of Earth creatures), the only one who could conceive of an organisation of the whole. The Swiss scholar and educator, Johann Pestalozzi, further developed the ideas and pointed out that concepts must be based on the observation of phenomena and the young children must be exposed to nature so that they could observe the close involvement of man with his immediate surroundings. In the same volume, Humboldt referred to Ritter’s work as the reflection of a part of the plan of Varenius, which in the earlier period of scientific development had not been accomplished. Causal relationships had to be sought by the comparative method that had proved so successful in other sciences, particularly anatomy. It may be noted that for Humboldt and Ritter, it was axiomatic that the terrestrial unity included organic and inorganic, human as well as non- human, material and immaterial. About the universal and regional laws in geography his opinion was that “the earth itself must be asked for its laws”. Regional Geography area as a whole first aims at identifying geographical factors or components of any area. Humboldt is believed to have described Ritter’s Erdkunde as the most inspired work of this kind (comparative geography) and further commented – ‘our country has yielded – it is the first work in which is presented the influence which the surface-view has had on the peoples and their fates.’ Humboldt also admired Ritter’s work on Asia and added that such an important work had not appeared in thirty years. In this article we will discuss about the contribution of Carl Ritter to the development of modern geography. He stressed the idea of land and water hemispheres, the distinction between the rates of heating and cooling of land and water, the difference between the northern and the southern hemispheres in their proportion of land and water. Ritter’s concept of the unity of nature was shaped by his deeply religious outlook and by the accepted natural philosophy of his time. The scientific stance of Ritter was teleological. An important benefit of the regional plan is that it provides for the maintenance of a greenbelt comprising 1.8 million acres of rural and conservation land. Thus, a dynamic element entered his teaching. He is widely respected as one of the founders of modern geography.Alexander von Humboldt's travels, experiments, and knowledge transformed western science in the nineteenth century. So far there is little to distinguish Ritter’s ideas from Humboldt’s and in the spatial arrangement of terrestrial phenomena, there is marked similarity between the two colleagues. 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father of regional geography

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