The court recognized the ICC decision, and in August, 1923, the suit was ended. Against the advice of their friends and in the face of strong opposition and ridicule they threw their entire resources and personal credit into the project. Traffic revenues were low, but a progressive and competitive spirit ran high. in 1907. Just type in a town or city and click on the timeline of maps at the bottom of the page! Many were pulled up in the 1970's and 1980's although others were removed long before that. What grew into a 1,000+ mile system started out humbly enough as the Arizona & South Eastern Rail Road chartered in May of 1888 (later known simply as the Arizona & Southeastern Railroad) by the Phelps, Dodge & Company. this line from the Rock as of July 1, 1907). Crocker's "pets," paced by Central Pacific's own Irish track builders, followed with seven. Crocker announced a construction program of a "mile of track every working day," a goal that actually was surpassed. In the mountainous country southeast of El Paso there was but one logical route for a railroad into the valley of the Rio Grande. SP's transcontinental communications system, in pre-war days already one of the most complete among railroads of the world, required expanding to meet the war load. Operating one of the world's largest dining car departments, SP during the war was serving to armed forces personnel more military meals in dining cars than any other two railroads in the country. One of the most difficult and spectacular pieces of construction was the now famous Lucin cut-off across Great Salt Lake, where for 32 miles the railroad "goes to sea" over a trestle and fill, nearly 12 miles of which is supported on piles. To meet increased demands for de luxe service to and from the Pacific Coast, partly due to travel stimulated by the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island in San Francisco Bay, the "Treasure Island Special" was operated during the summer of both years. On January 1, 1929, the Pacific Transportation Securities, Inc., was organized to consolidate SP's motor bus operations with those of its principal competitors, the Pickwick and Greyhound corporations in the territory west of Salt Lake City and El Paso, and south of Portland. Expanding into Mexico, Southern Pacific, through a reciprocal lease with the Santa Fe, had acquired the old Sonora Railway between Nogales and Guaymas and its Arizona connection to Benson, in exchange for the 242-mile main line which Southern Pacific had completed in 1883 from Mojave to Needles. Of 2,221 locomotives of all types owned at the end of 1944, only 4.91 per cent were in shops Or awaiting repair. In this feature we examine the locomotives and perhaps some of the loco motives behind the planning. Hardly had the lines in northern California recovered from storm onslaughts than southern California was swept by the worst rains and floods in its history. As an example, Roseville yard handled 7,055 freight cars on its peak war day of May 13, 1944, and 106 trains were received or dispatched, an average of one every 13 1/2 minutes during the 24-hour period. Improved credit by reason of increased earnings helped finance additional large purchases of locomotives, cars and other equipment. Training classes for passenger sales forces quickly qualified new employes for positions of responsibility. The war's end, closing another proud chapter in Southern Pacific history, brought some measure of relief from peak tonnage of freight, but there was to be no slackening in the volume of passenger traffic. By 1890 five American and two Mexican railroads converged at El Paso, making the city a vitally important commercial distribution center. A modest but interesting collection of locomotives served in the Sacramento Mountains. (Shasta was restored as a separate division July 1,1941, when wartime traffic became exceptionally heavy.) Summit of the Siskiyous was crossed at an elevation of 4,133 feet. The original route of the Central Pacific north of Great Salt Lake became a branch line in 1904 when SP opened a shorter main line over a trestle and fill built across the lake – the Lucin Cut-off. A. T. Mercier, who had demonstrated his ability as an operating officer and who had risen to the position of vice president, was elected president of the railroad on December 11, 1941. At the time of Huntington's death, Southern Pacific was operating more than 8000 miles of railroad extending from Portland, Ore., to Guaymas, Mex., and from Pacific Coast cities to Ogden and New Orleans. Complete meals served on trains and at restaurants totaled nearly 12,000,000, box lunch sales averaged 6,000 daily and sandwich sales 16,000 daily, enough sandwiches to pile 1,750 feet high. Construction on Lucin cut-off began March 17, 1902, and on November 13, 1903, tracks from the east and west shores met near the center of the lake. When Southern Pacific regained control of its properties in March, 1920, it faced, in common with all other rail-,road companies, abnormal operating conditions. Under this plan passengers were issued slips which permitted them to board designated coach trains at terminal and intermediate stations and this eliminated the confusion that would have resulted from a "first come first served" policy with crowds standing in line for long periods and rushing station gates. From this prosaic early environment the two hardware merchants became financial geniuses; the weigher of sugar and tea developed into a master organizer and political leader; while the man who had stood behind a ribbon counter rose to command men in a construction undertaking that startled the engineering world. The railroad's plant was further strengthened during the defense era as increased earnings were poured back into terminal yard and roundhouse expansions, main line siding extensions, trackage to serve new military and industrial establishments, about 650 miles of new heavier rail, improvements to shops, communication lines and other facilities throughout the property. Over the coming years some expansions continued, mostly in the way of additional branches from its through routes although the road did open a significant 66-mile extension west between Fairbank and Tuscon that began service on November 20, 1912. Final link in the Coast Line was completed March 20, 1904, when traffic was routed south from Santa Barbara through Oxnard and Burbank into Los Angeles. Also during 1887 an extension was built from Saugus on the San Joaquin Valley line and opened for traffic to Santa Paula on February 8, to Ventura May 18, to Carpinteria July 1, and on August 19 practically the entire population of the little city of Santa Barbara gathered at the new station to greet special trains that brought distinguished visitors from San Francisco, Los Angeles and other cities to join in celebrating the arrival of the Iron Horse. Today, there are tens of thousands of miles scattered throughout the country. With the return of peace, no further renewals of contracts were made, and upon the expiration of contracts then existing, the nationals were to be returned to Mexico. The 278-mile Modoc Line, opened for traffic on September 15, 1929, was created by building from Klamath Falls 96 miles to Alturas and rehabilitating the N-C-O- narrow gauge from Alturas to' a connection with SP's Overland Route in Nevada. To the properties in Texas and Louisiana, the 40-mile line of the Franklin and Abbeville Ry. 118-Texas Mexican - TM 162 miles, $3,344,519 tor, 86,466,000 rtm, 17 (d), States served- TX From the Classic Trains Magazine website- The first rail was laid in Sacramento on October 26, 1863; the first locomotive, "Governor Stanford," went into service November 10, 1863; and the first 31 miles of railroad was in operation to Newcastle on June 10, 1864, when the first timetable was published (four days premature) announcing regular passenger and freight service. Another new steam train, the 8-car all-Pullman "Forty-Niner" of streamline design and ultra-modern in all respects, was added July 8 on a 49-hour schedule between San Francisco and Chicago, staggering its five roundtrips a month with those of the "City of San Francisco" to provide streamliner service on the Overland Route every three days. Shortly before the hospital was destroyed by fire, all patients were safely removed to nearby cities. [HIDALGO ! The A&NM connected to the EP&SW at Hachita, New Mexico reaching as  far north as Clifton. Every car and locomotive that could roll had been subjected to heavy and continuous service and much shop work was necessary. Twin 17-car "Larks," between SF-LA, became the nation's premier sleeping car trains July 10, 1941, with newest type Pullmans and a luxurious, unique 3-unit lounge-diner-kitchen car. The three cars used on this run were acquired by SP in 1894, from which date the railroad has operated its own dining car service. In the mountainous country southeast of El Paso there was but one logical route for a railroad into the valley of the Rio Grande. Trains were in operation to Salem depot on October 11 and to Albany on December 25,1870; to Harrisburg, June 25, and to Eugene on October 15, 1871, when the 345-mile stage coach journey to the California terminus of the railroad was cut to five days. The SP line, branching from the main Sunset Route at Niland (then Old Reach), had been completed during 1903-04 to the Mexican border at Calexico. Overland passenger service was first operated to Alameda Wharf on September 6, 1869, and then transferred to Oakland Wharf the following November 8. Expenditures were" confined to those necessary for current operating purposes and safety. Such confidence was, indeed, well merited; for during the entire war period the Southern Pacific organization, despite serious handicaps of manpower and equipment shortages, kept unprecedented volumes of traffic moving to surpass any previous accomplishment in the company's existence. and Guadalajara are leased from National Railways of Mexico. In addition to the construction of these important main line units, the expansive improvement program of 1923-30 included a multitude of other projects, only a few of the larger items of which can be mentioned here. The 16-mile narrow gauge line of the Lake Tahoe Railway and Transportation Co., originally opened between Truckee and Lake Tahoe in May, 1899, was leased October 16, 1925, rebuilt to standard gauge and opened for traffic May 1, 1926. [NOTE: The contention that the CPRR's Chinese laborers were swung in "baskets" during the construction of Cape Horn, located just East of Colfax, is a long time and often repeated misconception. In conclusion he said: "I know the men and women of our railroad. Julius Kruttschnitt, chairman of SP's executive committee, was elected to the additional duties of corporate president to succeed Sproule. In San Francisco a Port Traffic Committee, composed of representatives from the Army, Navy, AAR, ICC and the railroads, met weekly to review the Pacific Coast port situation and keep freight traffic coordinated with available shipping. This expansion, in its initial stages, saw enfolded into Central Pacific's organization several independently established companies in central California, some of which were already in operation, while others existed only on paper. Almost all movement of oil during the war was handled by the railroads as oil tanker ships were diverted to support the military overseas. a million other transportation jobs to dispatch during the defense period of 1940-41, and on through the war. For most of two days there was virtually no communication by wire with the stricken district. heavier power to the property using former Boston & Maine 2-8-4 Typical of the courage and daring that characterized the successful exploits of many western pioneers, the four associates launched the project, unmatched in all the story of rail transportation, without any one of them ever having been remotely connected with a construction project of greater magnitude than the erection of their own store buildings. Otto Perry photo. In addition, 86,359 special military cars were handled on regular passenger trains. During 1923 and the seven years immediately following. Loaded with cash and a desire to continue its expansion the EP&SW more than doubled in size when it took over the El Paso & Northeastern Railroad on July 1, 1905. Huntington was the last survivor of the quartet of Sacramento merchants whose courage and sagacity had created the western portions of the nation's first transcontinental rail routes, and who were to become immortal in the annals of western achievement. Central Pacific provided buffets on most of its Silver Palace cars, as did Pullman on its Hotel Cars. Central Pacific's debt to the government was computed at more than $58,000,000 in 1899, and by July, 1903, that debt had been paid in full. First units of the new Taylor Yard at Los Angeles, which was to eventually total 250 miles of trackage, were completed during 1922-23. The manpower shortage was SP's greatest wartime problem. TxDOT maintains and publishes the state railroad map annually with Geographical Information System data. give it a seat on the board). After meeting the depression emergency with the unpleasant task of effecting rigid economies, SP's management turned to the more stimulating and pleasant role of adopting new services and techniques that would attract business and meet competition, particularly competition on the highways. The railroad was a great attraction at Oregon's annual state fair at Salem to which point the O&C began operation on September 29, 1870. Copper, however, was not its only source of freight as the EP&SW also hauled coal, agriculture, livestock, food products, merchandise, and various LCL (less-than-carload) traffic not to mention scheduled passenger trains. Uncle Sam gathers his strength from American industry, so the factory lathes and farm tractors had to be kept rolling in tune with the greatly increased tempo of the nation's productivity, while produce from orchards, farms, truck gardens and vineyards somehow had to be gotten to far-off markets. 15. began to take its toll. With this the EP&SW was mostly complete, boasting a route that covered more than 1,200 miles. Advantage could not be taken of a mild 1864-65 winter in the Sierra, otherwise the Central Pacific might have met the Union Pacific at Cheyenne instead of Promontory. The weekly radio program, "Main Line," was inaugurated November 10, 1943, to attract wider public attention to the railroad's manpower shortage. There the terminus remained for thirteen years while construction forces concentrated on completing the line through the San Joaquin Valley and eastward from Los Angeles, as already described. They were grateful, too, for the help that had made their accomplishments possible—such help as the sustained cooperation of governmental and commercial shippers, of Army and Navy transportation staffs, of government agencies and connecting railroads, of Shippers Advisory Boards and the Association of American Railroads, and the understanding attitude of the general public, the press and the radio in connection with the railroad's multiple problems. Strategically situated on the front line of supply with more than 15,000 miles of lines serving ports of the Pacific and the Guff of Mexico, with more military and naval establishments on its lines than on any other railroad in the country, and with mounting production from hundreds of huge aircraft, shipyard and other war industries continuously swelling its traffic load, SP and its subsidiary companies felt the heavy impact of the war from the very outset. Just what the Big Four associates envisioned in May of 1869 as their ultimate railroad system is not known. This "special ticket" for the Southern Pacific Railroad, issued in 1893, gave its bearer the right to travel on the company's trains "between all stations west of El Paso." Construction of the $11,000,000 Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, one of the finest passenger stations in the nation, was begun late in 1933 under joint agreements by the SP, Union Pacific, and Santa Fe. Even the assurance of government aid through grants of land and the loan of federal money, left the Central Pacific organizers with a formidable task ahead of them. The government's suit to force SP to sell all its stock in the pioneer Central Pacific was begun February 11, 1914. Temporary tracks were laid on city streets for removal of debris and to bring in rebuilding materials. Co. was re-acquired on April 8, 1925, and operated in consolidation with SP's Texas lines. Mexican adobe huts, El Paso, Texas, 1887, Prints and Photographs Collection, Texas State Library and Archives ... top 5 reasons why railroads changed small towns in Texas to modern cities. There was delay in getting military authority to lay tracks across the Yuma Indian reservation, and it was September 30 that year before the bridge was completed so trains could operate into Yuma, a village known as Arizona City prior to 1873. Every piece of snow-fighting equipment available was in almost constant operation keeping fines open over a total of 312 miles on widely scattered districts. Freight trains were shortened so as to move on passenger train schedules. It was opened on May 7, 1939, and new facilities, including Mission Road Coach Yard, were placed in service. The search for old power that could be reconditioned and returned to regular service was far-reaching and thorough. The only passenger ferries remaining in service between San Francisco and Oakland Pier were the three operated in connection with main line steam trains. The company owns the Visalia Electric RR, which operates freight service on more than 38 miles of lines serving Exeter, Woodlake, Redbanks, Lemon Cove and El Mirador in Tulare County. The route ahead was over a terrain that offered none of the difficulties encountered in the mountains. The summer of 1901 also witnessed the formation of the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad to take over the operations of the A&SE to better reflect the company's intentions of continuing to expand eastward. Southern Pacific had more new construction in hand than any other railroad in the country. As a consequence PMT Co. activities relating to the handling of freight were taken over by the SP during 1938. LA and Redondo Ry., Riverside & Arlington Ry, San Bernadino Valley Traction, Redlands Central Ry., San Bernardino Inter-urban Ry., and LA Pacific companies. Eleven months passed before the five miles between Newcastle and Auburn was opened to traffic May 13, 1865. During the latter winter the only work possible was in the tunnels. The development of PMT's merchandise business had the effect of adding more trains to the main line, more employes at freight stations, and more employment in other departments. Prior to this the "West Side" line was operated from Portland to Hillsboro on December 23, 1871, but it was January 28,1880, before trains were run through from McMinnville to Corvallis. The great broad region now so productive and populous was then nearly unoccupied. At that time less than 100 miles of rail lines had been built in the United States during the three years since the first public railroad [Baltimore & Ohio RR] was operated out of Baltimore. Little new equipment had been built because of war restrictions on labor and materials. A highly recommended database! This latest development would add 132 miles to the This reduction figured out to be about a cent a mile, so the special excursion events staged at various times during 1931-32-33 were advertised as "Dollar Days" offering "100 Miles of Travel for $1." For their contributions, they also enjoy massive subsidization for infrastructure upgrades. Purchase of the old Central Pacific line westward from Ogden to San Francisco had been sought by Harriman, but Southern Pacific would not sell. Stanford, 36 years old when first steps were taken in November, 1860, to organize a railroad company, was a dealer in groceries and provisions; Crocker, 38, had a dry goods store; Huntington, 39, and Hopkins, 47, were partners in a hardware establishment. Crossing of the El Paso & Southwestern and the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio railroads. Among other early companies was Peter Donahue's 1870 rail-ferry service from Santa Rosa to Donahue Landing and San Francisco. Wes Barris's is simply the best web resource in the study of steam locomotives. The travel needs of these men and women, en route to camps and hospitals and homes, continued to be the first concern of the company in the face of a critical shortage of passenger equipment to meet the tremendous job. The year 1868 was one of feverish activity for the Central Pacific forces. Building continued through Los Gatos (service begun June 1, 1878) to a connection near Big Trees with the eight-mile Santa Cruz and Felton line, which had been independently built and in operation to "Old" Felton since October, 1875, and which was acquired by the Davis-Fair interests. All of these glistening mementoes played an honorary part in the program. Central Pacific's bonnet-stacked, woodburning locomotive "Jupiter" and the slim-stacked coal-burning No. The coming of the railroads stirred some of the town's more progressive citizens to action. This made Southern Pacific truly "transcontinental" with what was then the most extensive transportation system in the world. There was no letup in the day and night battle to complete emergency repairs, and early on the morning of March 5 Southern Pacific —over the Coast Line—was the first railroad to restore service into Los Angeles. During 1870 the Big Four reorganized the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, and under its name carried through much of the construction already referred to in this sketch. During the twelve and a half years after 1887 a total of 2,630 miles of lines were added to Southern Pacific's operations, about 70 per cent of it being on the Pacific System. The New Orleans to El Paso mainline is still a key part of Union Pacific, while most of the branchlines have been spun off or abandoned. Local steam trains in Oakland, Berkeley and Alameda that connected with ferry boats at Oakland and Alameda piers, were changed to electric in 1911-12-13. The two beautiful red-orange-black streamliners, each costing a million dollars, each with 449 saleable seats, were placed in service March 21, 1937, on a 9%-hour schedule. Proving ground for this revolutionary practice in a railroad's handling of merchandise freight was on SP's electric line subsidiary between Los Angeles and some twenty stations in southern California. Construction on a large terminal yard at Eugene, Ore., was begun in 1923 and the last unit completed during 1929. In taking over the office of president on December 11, 1941, four days after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President A. T. Mercier issued a message to Southern Pacific men and women saying that "our first duty is to our government in the war," and added: "The job is being tackled by all hands in the traditional spirit that built our western link of America's transcontinental railroad — the same spirit that has since won through in every crisis of flood, storm and disaster. The primary objective in expediting the handling of merchandise freight was not to substitute trucks for trains, but rather to supplement trucks to train operations and hold the long hauls to the rails. Southern Pacific gave $200,000 for relief work and in 35 days moved over 1,600 carloads of relief supplies and over 224,000 passengers free of charge. "Nursery rooms" were arranged at many stations for the use of mothers. The Terminal, served by SP and PE, is located on 22 acres in the Wholesale District of that city. Pioneer unit of the NWP dates from Charles Minturn's 2 1/2-mile horse-powered rail line of 1864 from Petaluma to Haystack Landing where it connected with ferry boats to San Francisco. The average soldier made five train trips during the course of his training before he embarked for overseas service, and the. All movement of supplies and evacuees was done without charge. The California portion of the Cascade Line originated in the California Northeastern, incorporated in July, 1905, to reconstruct a logging road built by the Weed Lumber Co. during 1903-05 from Weed to Grass Lake, and to extend the line to Klamath Falls. An extension to Bly was completed on April 30, 1929, giving the road a total of 65 miles. With this expansion of activity came the need for more highway operations and additional equipment. In 1944 the freight tonnage being moved by the S.P. Operations established out of San Francisco the following April soon spread to many California and Oregon points. The rail lines were digitized using aerial photography at a 1:12,000 scale. The buffet was at one end of the car, and at first only canned edibles were available to supplement other moderate service. Slowly branches and routes were cut back as copper and El Paso, city, seat (1850) of El Paso county, extreme western Texas, U.S. Passenger services were greatly expanded during 1939-40. He failed to impress men with money to invest until he got the attention of the Sacramento merchants. As a major unit in the railroad's extensive water supply system for operational and domestic use on the lines between El Paso and Tucumcari, N. M., Bonito Dam was placed in service during the summer of 1931. Primitive and crude as such equipment was by present-day standards, it represented a great advance in its day, and in fact contemporary travel guide books described the Silver Palace Sleeping Cars as "elegant," with "appointments of a home drawing room" and such comforts that one slept "amid the easy roll of the car as sweetly and refreshingly as ever upon the home bed.'' Employes on SP's Transportation System (Pacific and T&NO lines) totaled 94,900 on December 31, 1944, an increase of about 70 per cent over the end of 1939. ft. of floor space accommodating a cold storage plant, food manufacturers and distributors, wholesale drug firms and department stores. When war broke, the program of equipment maintenance and repair stressed during the defense period was greatly intensified in the three general shops on Pacific Lines and the two general shops on T&NO Lines, as well as in all divisional shops. Yet, on that date there were jobs open for more than 9,000 employes. Again the railroad took a hitch in its belt, effecting every economy possible that would not weaken operating efficiency or would not seriously interfere with the continuous program of service improvements that had become distinctive of Southern Pacific's current New Era of railroading. Texas Railroad History - Tower 6, Tower 66 and Tower 196 - El Paso Union Depot. To provide motor truck service for store-door pickup and delivery of less-than-carload freight, there was organized the Pacific Electric Motor Transport Co., which commenced operation March 11, 1929. The first company to lay its rails through the pass would have undisputed right-of-way from Sierra Blanca to El Paso. The Coast Line as it exists today was not opened through to Los Angeles until after the turn of the century. They have what it takes. North From Marysville Construction of the California portion of the line to Oregon was begun north from Marysville in October, 1869. Many cities celebrated the occasion, and throughout the nation knots of people gathered around telegraph offices to get the final flash from far-off Utah. This objective was won by the SP forces, and the road opened into Sierra Blanc on November 25, 1881. He was president of the Northern Pacific when that company completed its transcontinental line into Portland during August, 1883, and was the organizer and leading figure in the Oregon Railway & Navigation Company, later a unit of the Union Pacific line into Portland. While in the midst of the battle with the Colorado River, Southern Pacific's aid was rushed to another disaster area. An important Southern Pacific acquisition on July 1, 1887, was the South Pacific Coast property in California, which included more than 100 miles of main and branch line narrow gauge railroad from Oakland and Alameda to Santa Cruz, ferry boat service on San Francisco Bay, and three miles of horse-drawn street car, freight and passenger service between Newark and Centerville. SP pioneered and led the way in numerous innovations and improvements in railroad services; notably, in expanding motor truck store-door pickup and delivery of less than carload freight to include highway operations in conjunction with fast overnight merchandise freight trains, also in the offering of "bargain-day" passenger fares on coach trains, and in the introduction of the popular priced "meals select" in dining cars. More economical and efficient ways were found to handle the business of operating Motor buses several... 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