Emasculation is done during early morning between 6 and 8 AM in spikelets, due to open on the same day. In some crops (e.g., Jowar, Bajra) the inflorescences of both the parents are enclosed in the same bag. Transfer of some genes from one species into the genome of the other species is known as introgressive hybridization. Self male and female sterility, protogyny and hanging down of anthers away from the stigma at the time of anthesis promote self pollination. This method is also known as the mass or population method. (iii) Information on the inheritance of characters cannot be obtained. Two crossing techniques for hybridization of chickpea have been reported and include pollination after emasculation and pollination without emasculation. This video contains details on Emasculation and Pollination in rice plant (breeding , hybridization) , Meaning of Hybridization 2. Plant breeding - Plant breeding - Hybrid varieties: The development of hybrid varieties differs from hybridization in that no attempt is made to produce a pure-breeding population; only the F1 hybrid plants are sought. Introduction to Hybridization 2. Emasculation techniques and detached tiller culture in wheat x maize crosses Which organelle is known as “power house” of the cell? To artificially create a variable population for the selection of types with desired combination of characters. Hybridization Methods of Plant Breeding in Self-Pollinated Groups: Hybridization Methods of Plant Breeding in Cross-Pollinated Crops: Hybridization Methods of Plant Breeding in Vegetatively Propagated Crops: The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. A cross-involving more than one inbred line is referred to as multiple cross. Emasculation is necessarily followed by controlled pollination. (i) The new variety is superior over the already available variety only in the transferred character. 2000-10000 F2 plants are space planted. Objectives of Hybridization 3. In alfa-alfa, a treatment of even 10 seconds with 57 % alcohol is sufficient to kill the pollen grains. It is commonly known as ‘Fairchild Mule’. F5 plants are grown and their F6 seeds are harvested in bulk. This selfing method is followed in Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore. Combination Breeding The main aim of combination breeding is the transfer of one or more characters into a single variety from other varieties. In this approach, increase in the yield of a variety is obtained by correcting the weakness in the yield contributing traits e.g., tiller number, grains per spike, test weight etc., of the concerned variety. In this method individual plants are selected till the progenies become homozygous. It is mostly vegetatively propagated.  Some varieties seldom flowers outside tropics.  Some varieties flowers once in 6 to 8 months.  It is highly controlled by photoperiods. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? (ii) During early segregating generations, very little work and attention is needed, which gives the breeder more time to concentrate on other breeding projects. TOS4. FA plants are grown and their F5 seeds are harvested in bulk. Objectives of Hybridization 3. Meaning of Hybridization: Individual produced as a result of […] In the case of unisexual flowers, this step is not necessary. The desirable variety is called as recurrent or recipient parent and it is crossed to an undesirable variety, called as donor or non-recurring parent (called donor because the desirable genes are transferred). Emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis. F3 plants are grown and their F4 seeds are harvested in bulk. iv. Stigma should be receptive and anthers should not have dehisced. Success of crossing with emasculation varied from 5 to 17%; while the success rate varied from 20 to 50% by pollination without emasculation. ; Choice of parents. Either the inbred or the variety may be used as female parent, but to use variety as female is preferable. In the coming season, the stored seeds are sown separately to raise the F1 generation. Now-a-days this method is employed in improvement of both self and cross-pollinated crops where varieties are deficient in one or two aspects. (Fig. Certain chemicals are capable of causing male sterility, when sprayed before flowering e.g., 2, 4-D, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), maleic-hydrazide (MA), tribenzoic acid etc. Single crosses give the maximum degree of hybrid vigour but due to weak inbreeds, little amount of seed is produced. It can be defined as a cross among inbreeds, clones or sibbed lines without control of pollination. Due to successive self-pollination most of the lines become homozygous and uniform. This method has limited utility except in high risk areas where severe disease damage occurs regularly from a highly specialized disease pathogen. Mechanical pollination control refers to any approach by which pollen transfer is mechanically prevented. The plants of F1 generation are progenies of cross seeds and therefore are hybrids. Share Your Word File II. This is the cross of a number (4-10) pretested hybrids and is done by open pollination in isolation. During flowering, cut around the stem and tie a polythene bag with nutrients (growth medium).  The bud near cut end give rise to roots.  This can be cut and used for hybridization purposes.  This method is called marcotting.  Practiced in TNAU, Coimbatore and Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore.Â. Removal of stamens with the help of forceps is very difficult in minute flowers. The inbreeds are combined in any one of the following types of crosses and released as improved strains. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. F2 plants are grown and their F2 seeds are harvested in bulk. Selected superior plants in III year are space planted to study the individual plant. SUGARCANE (Saccharum officinarum) (2n = 80) Cross pollination is the rule in sugarcane. During the testing period observations are made on height, tendency to lodge, maturity, disease resistance and quality. SUGARCANE (Saccharum officinarum) (2n = 80) Cross pollination is the rule in sugarcane. Nilsson-Eule of Sweden was first to use the bulk method and it is in use ever since. To combine the desired characters into a single individual, and. (Synonyms, poly-cross and strain building). F1 plants are space planted to produce maximum number of F2 seeds (see Fig. It is the third step in hybridization. F1 plant is backcrossed with the recurrent parent; variety A and BC: plants (back cross first generation) plants are raised. Bagging. Lec 12 Emasculation and Pollination Techniques 51-53 Lec 13 Maize 54-57 Lec 14 Red gram 58-64 Lec 15 Sugarcane 65-70 Lec 16 Methods of breeding – introduction and acclimatization 71-79 Lec 17 Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization 80-88 Lec 18 Back cross method and various modified methods 89-99 All the hybrid seeds of maize to farmers for cultivation are nothing but double crosses. For many crops, like rice, maize and tomato, emasculation of the female line by hand is required, raising costs and labour expenses of seed production. This method was first proposed by Harlan and Pope (1922). The selection of parents depends upon the aims and objectives of breeding. Hybridization Methods of Plant Breeding in Cross-Pollinated Crops. (i) This method takes much longer time to develop a new variety. What is its function? 1. Improved clones of asexually propagating plants are selected and allowed to grow under conditions, which favour flowering and seed setting. 1. It is a cross of a single cross (used as female) with another inbred (used as male), i.e., it involves three inbreeds [(A x B) x C], The single cross and the inbreeds are planted in the same way as the inbreeds in the single cross. In monoecious plants, male flowers are removed. The selected pure lines are first combined into crosses as A × B, C × D, E × F, G × H and so on. Seeds are stored properly with original tags. F1 plants instead of permitting to self-pollination as in pedigree or bulk method care crossed with the recurring parent and therefore, it is called as back cross method (A back cross may be defined as a crossing of F1 hybrid with any of its parents). There are several methods of improvement of self-fertilized crops by hybridization. Emasculation and Crossing techniques. Like hot water cold water also kills pollen grains without damaging the gynoecium. It consists of a cylindrical metallic container of 60 cm length, with one hole of 5 cm to 16 cm diameter on one end to pass over a bajra or jowar head. Types 4. It is summarized in Figs. In monoecious plants, male flowers are removed. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Individual produced as a result of cross between two genetically different parents is known as hybrid. The following are the adaptations for cross pollination, i.e., Monoecious inflorescence, unisexual flower, differences in the time of … Emasculation and hybridization methods in Pearl millet 29-30 11. 3 to 5 best plants in these rows are selected and harvested (F4). The total number of possible different single crosses produced by a given number of inbreeds can be calculated by the formula n(n-1)/2 where n is the number of inbreeds. Hybridization is an important method of combining characters of different plants. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. The method is used for the transfer of a dominant gene. What are the general characters of bryophytes? Emasculation and Pollination in rice plant (breeding , hybridization) - Hybrid Rice production - Duration: 8:24. It is the only method used for the interspecific transfer of characters, transfer of qualitative characters, quantitative characters, transfer of cytoplasm, particularly for male sterility and for the production of isogenics lines. Maintenance of accurate pedigree record is not easy. Wind pollination (Anemophily) is the general rule. Meaning of Hybridization 2. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. (vii) Harvesting and Storing the F1 Seeds: Crossed heads or pods of desirable plants are harvested and after complete drying they are threshed. (i) The bulk method is simple, convenient, inexpensive and less labour consuming (no pedigree record is to be kept). 12, 13. It is a mechanical method and is suitable for the crops having minute flowers. (The process may be repeated until the desired period of homozygosity is achieved. Emasculation: At a certain stage of flower development the anthers become ripe and dehisce to liberate the pollens. In this method an equipment is used which is placed on a simple heavy stand. 5. Disease resistant plants are selfed and individual plant progenies from the selfed seeds of selected plants are grown. Manual emasculation is very common in breeding experiments, but it is time consuming, intensive, and expensive (Acquaah, 2007). These crosses are generally less productive. The most common procedure of manual emasculation is with the use of forceps or scissors. There are various techniques of emasculation: (i) Hand Emasculation: Multi-locations field trials are carried out, best performing strain is multiplied for seed distribution. Hybridization/ Crossing technique (Emasculation & Pollination) in wheat (Triticum aestivum ... Emasculation and crossing techniques in paddy - Duration: 6:00. Self male and female sterility, protogyny and hanging dow n of anthers away from the stigma at the time of anthesis promote self pollination. EMASCULATION AND POLLINATION TECHNIQUES IN MILLETS. In general bulk period is allowed up to F5 generation). In bisexual flowers, emasculation is essential to prevent of self-pollination. This step of removal of anther using forceps is termed as emasculation. anthers are sterile and do not produce any viable pollens! The first artificial interspecific plant hybrid was produced by Thomas Fairchild in 1717. (iv) This method is totally dependent on natural selection to select the superior types. These hybrids give very high yield in small land without any increase in the cost of production. To exploit and utilize the hybrid varieties. EMASCULATION AND POLLINATION TECHNIQUES IN SUGARCANE. A sulfurous acid solution keeps the inflorescence alive for several weeks.  Here, we cut both mal and female flowering arrows along with small portion of stem.  These cut end will be immersed in a vessel containing 0.01% sulphuric acid and 0.01% phosphoric acid.  The cut end at the lab is brought nearer and effect cross pollination.  They absorb the weak acids.  We have to add weak solution daily to replace the acid taken by stem.  Once in a week we have to completely change the solution.  This is done for 20-30 days.  During this time, the seed will mature. Takes much longer time to develop a new clone the above-mentioned crosses, are... 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